The word “cement” traces to the Ancient Roman Era, where the term opus caementicium was used to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as a binder. The volcanic ash and pulverized brick supplements that were added to the burnt lime, to obtain a hydraulic binder, were later referred to as cementum, cimentum, cäment and cement. Thus, cement is a substance that sets and hardens and can bind other materials together.


Concrete is a composite material composed mainly of water, aggregate, and cement. Often, admixtures and reinforcements are included to improve or modify the mixture and tensile strength so as to achieve the desired physical properties of the finished material. When these ingredients are mixed together, they form a fluid mass that is easily moulded into shape. Over time, the cement forms a hard matrix which binds the rest of the ingredients together into a durable stone-like material with many uses.